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Korean J Med Hist > Volume 15(2); 2006 > Article
Korean Journal of Medical History 2006;15(2): 157-187.
서양정신의학의 도입과 그 변천과정(2) 일제 강점기의 정신의학 교육(1910-1945)
정원용1, 이나미2, 이부영3
The Introduction of Western Psychiatry into Korea (II) Psychiatric Education in Korea during the Forced Japanese Annexation of Korea (1910-1945)
Wonyong Chung1, Na Mi Lee2, Bou Yong Rhi3
1Psychiatric Clinic, Korea.
2Institute of Psychoanalysis, Korea.
3C.G. Jung Institute of Korea.
In the second report in our series on the historical investigation on the introduction of western psychiatry into Korea, authors deal with the status of psychiatric education during the Japanese forced annexation of Korea. The first lecture on psychiatry in Korea under the title "Mental Diseases" was held in Dae-han-eui-won around 1910. In 1913, the Department of Psychiatry branched off from the Department of Internal Medicine of Chosen-sotoku-fu-iing, the Colonial Governmental Clinic, the successor of Dae-han-eui-won. The chairman, Professor Suiju Sinji; and the Korean assistant Sim Ho-seop administered the psychiatric ward with 35 beds. Since 1913, an Australian missionary psychiatrist, Dr. McLaren began to teach neurology and psychiatry at Severance Union Medical College and established a Department of Psychiatry in 1923. Dr. McLaren was a faithful Christian and open minded toward Oriental religious thought such as in Buddhism and Taoism. He devoted himself to the humanitarian care of mentally ill patients and served there until 1937 when he had to leave the land due to Japanese persecution. His disciple, Dr. Lee Jung Cheol succeeded the chair of the Psychiatric Department of Severance Medical College and served until 1939. In 1916, Keijo(Seoul) Medical College was established and in 1928, Keijo Teikoku Daigaku(Imperial University). From 1929 to 1941, the Department of Neurology and Psychiatry of Keijo Imperial University grew under the chairmanship of Professor Kubo Kioji followed by Professor Watanabe until 1945. Many assistants including a few Koreans were gathered to the Department for training and research. The main textbook used for the psychiatric education for medical students in Korea was on Kraepelinian German Psychiatry translated and edited by Japanese psychiatrists. Lectures and clerkships for Neurology and Psychiatry were allocated generally in the curriculum for senior students for weekly 1-3 hours. Postgraduate professional training for the psychiatrists was carried out according to the tutorial system under the supervision of professors and staff. In regard to a wide range of references discovered in the library of the Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Keijo Imperial University the trainees seem to have had opportunity to contact with diverse subspecialties of psychiatry and also to exercise specific laboratory examinations in the setting of the German "Klinik". Comparisons of psychiatry in Korea and Japan during Japanese occupation suggest the following conclusions: 1. Extreme discrimination against Korean trainees in their academic careersprobably due to colonial policy. After 35 years of Japanese occupation of Korea only ten Korean neuro-psychiatrists and neurologists were left; 2. Somewhat narrow academic interests of psychiatrists in Korea in research fields focusing on neuropathology and opium addiction etc and the lackness of the interest in social psychiatric issues: for example, the rights of the mentally ill patient or non-restraining care systems as seen in Japanese psychiatry in Japan. 3. Extremely limited number of psychiatry teaching staffs in Korea. For a long time Keijo Imperial University's Department of Neurology and Psychiatry was the only center for training psychiatrists in Korea.
Key Words: History, Psychiatric Education, Korea, Japan
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