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Korean J Med Hist > Volume 16(2); 2007 > Article
Korean Journal of Medical History 2007;16(2): 111-131.
고려전기의 지방의료제도
The Provincial Medical System during the Early Days of Koryo Dynasty
Kyung Lock Lee
Handok Museum of Medicine and Pharmacy, Korea.
This article explores the setup and development of the provincial medical system during the early days of Koryo(918-1392) Dynasty. Under the reign of King HyunJong(1009-1031) the dualistic medical system of the UiSa(a medical officer) and the YakJumSa(a provincial medical officer) was established. The former, the officer of central government, were sent to the local government, and the latter, the successor of provincial powerful clan, operated the YakJum. The Uisa supervised the YakJumSa in 13 local governments, and it indicates the will and the limitation of the power of Koryo government. On the other hand, a great number of the YakJumSa were spreaded throughout the country except the capital and the vice capital, and it means the development of medical system during the early days of Koryo. The missions of the Uisa and the YakJumSa were instructing the medical students, collecting the tribute herbs, treatment, and relieve the poor people. And they just took the right of collecting tax of the land as their salaries, and it was different from the another officers. This dualistic medical system of the UiSa and the YakJumSa got under way in the reign of King MoonJong(1046-1083). But after the reign of King YeJong(1105-1122) the YakJumSa became the only provincial medical officer as the UiSa had been perished for reducing the ruling system. So the monistic medical system of the YakJumSa was the final provincial medical system of Koryo. Despite accomplishing the nationwide medical network with the YakJumSa, Koryo government failed to maintain and develop the provincial medical system with the UiSa. And it caused the difference of medical standard between the ruling class of the capital and the people of the province. Therefore, it can be said that the important principal of the medical system of Koryo was hierarchy accordance with the regional difference.
Key Words: Koryo Dynasty, provincial medical system, UiHakBakSa(a medical instructor), UiSa(a medical officer), UiHak(a medical officer), YakJum, YakJumSa(a provincial medical officer), Hierarchy
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