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Korean J Med Hist > Volume 16(2); 2007 > Article
Korean Journal of Medical History 2007;16(2): 177-191.
1918년 한국 내 인플루엔자 유행의 양상과 연구 현황: 스코필드 박사의 논문을 중심으로
천명선, 양일석
1918 Influenza Pandemic in Korea: A Review on Dr. Schofield' Article
Myung Sun Chun, Il Suk Yang
Department of Veterinary Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea.
The article "Pandemic influenza in Korea with special references to its etiology," published in JAMA in April, 1919 by Dr. Frank William Schofield, is a valuable material reflecting the influenza pandemic situation in 1918 in Korea. It contains the case reports of influenza infected patients and the results of the bacteriological experiments. Dr. Schofield worked as a bacteriology professor in Severance Union Medical College in Seoul from 1916 to 1920. His academic activities are lesser-known than the role of contributor of Korean independent movement. However, he was a remarkable veterinarian and scientist. According to Dr. Schofield, the number of Influenza infected population in Korea in 1918 was supposed to be 4,000,000 to 8,000,000, which corresponds with other resources(6.7 per 1,000 in Gangwon province). Considering the cases which were not registered as influenza infection by misdiagnosis of pneumonia complication the sum should be higher. However, the estimated crude influenza death rate from the reports by the Japanese colonial government was only 2.38(per 1,000). Dr. Schofield and his colleague tried to culture "Pfeiffer Bacillus" from the sputum and blood specimens of patients showing typical influenza symptoms. The bacterium was mistakenly considered as the influenza agent till the virological nature of influenza was discovered in the 1930s. From the results of his study he seemed to agree that "filterable virus" was the influenza agent and the secondary infection of the bacillus caused respiratory symptoms. He also reported on the influenza vaccination during the epidemics. Dr. Schofield's article confirms that the damage caused by the influenza outbreak in Korea was as great as in other Asian countries or even worse. It also gives information about the researches and education on the etiology and vaccination of influenza based on the germ theory in the medical colleges in Korea, which adopted the western medical educational system in the early 20th century.
Key Words: 1918, Influenza, Korea, Schofield
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